Whiteness 101: A Reading List to Abolish the Problem

Compiled by Sean Guynes (2018-Present) and Martin Lund (2018-2019)


Whiteness. You know what it is.

Either you have benefited from its privileges, have been caught at its ragged edges, or have suffered under its thumb. It is a central problem of modernity, a human rights concern of contemporary life.


Whiteness must be abolished.


Writers, activists, and scholars have been talking about whiteness for decades, with Richard Wright’s collection of essays White Man, Listen! (Doubleday, 1957) an early example. After a stuttering start, presaged by work like Theodore Allen’s multi-volume project The Invention of the White Race (written in the 1960s and 1970s), whiteness studies emerged as an academic discipline in the 1990s, driven forward by the surge of interest in multiculturalism and racial diversity that grabbed the humanities and social sciences in the decade after the Cold War, and which was formalized by the first generation of scholars who were trained by those with the first PhDs from ethnic, black, and African American studies programs that emerged in the 1960s and 1970s.

It is unsurprising, given the weight of the problem, that whiteness studies has accrued a huge body of literature, both in the form of monographs and edited collections, and journal articles. But whiteness concerns more than academics; it fucks us all, and it is acknowledged regularly in public and popular conversations on the news, on social media, in articles published by Teen Vogue, and in the workplace. With Trump as president, the alt-right emboldened and blazing across the world, the need to contextualize, understand, challenge, obliterate whiteness as a category of social formation—and to remember the shape of its violent history—is as important a call to justice as that of climate change. To undo whiteness is to do anti-racism. The work starts here, and it must start now.

The following is a list of well over 200 books (and occasional articles) about whiteness, originally compiled in collaboration with  Martin Lund (2018-2020). The books on this list range across the history of whiteness studies, they are from academic and trade presses, from multiple disciplines (from education and sociology, literary studies and history). Some are great and others are just OK, but together they represent a growing collective knowledge of whiteness, its formations, its bullshit about itself, and how we get free from it. The list is broken into sections that recognize special interests and intersections in thinking about whiteness; they are organized alphabetically; they are not perfect, but reflect an informed attempt to categorize responses to an insidiously slippery problem.


Those of you who use Goodreads, check out the lists Courtney Whited put together in January 2020 compiling the books updated to that point: Part One and Part Two.


* Especially significant texts are marked with an asterisk at the beginning of the entry.


Introductions to Whiteness

Garner, Steve. Whiteness: An Introduction. New York: Routledge, 2007.

Histories of Whiteness

* Alexander, Michelle. The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. New York: New Press, 2010.

* Allen, Theodore W. The Invention of the White Race: Volume 1: Racial Oppression and Social Control. 2nd ed. New York: Verso, 2012.

—. The Invention of the White Race: Volume 2: The Origin of Racial Oppression in Anglo-America. 2nd ed. New York: Verso, 2012.

* Arvin, Maile Rennee. Possessing Polynesians: The Science of Settler Colonial Whiteness in Hawai‘i and Oceania. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2019.

Baldwin, Andrew, Laura Cameron, and Audrey Kobayashi, eds.Rethinking the Great White North: Race, Nature, and the Historical Geographies of Whiteness in Canada. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2011. 

Baum, Bruce. The Rise and Fall of the Caucasian Race: A Political History of Racial Identity. New York: New York University Press, 2006.

Bell, Duncan. Dreamworlds of Race: Empire and the Utopian Destiny of Anglo-America. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2020.

Bernardi, Daniel, ed. The Birth of Whiteness: Race and the Emergence of United States Cinema. Rutgers University Press, 1996.

Bowles, John P. “Blinded by the White: Art and History at the Limits of Whiteness.” Art Journal, vol. 60, no. 4, 2001.

Bromberg, Eli. Unsettling: Jews, Whiteness, and Incest in American Popular Culture. Rutgers University Press, 2020.

Cocks, Catherine. Tropical Whites: The Rise of the Tourist South in the Americas. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013.

de Souza, Rebecca T. Feeding the Other: Whiteness, Privilege, and Neoliberal Stigma in Food Pantries. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2019.

Fine, Michelle, Lois Weis, Linda C. Powell, and L. Mun Wong. Off White: Readings on Race, Power, and Society. New York: Routledge, 1996.

* Frankenburg, Ruth. White Women, Race Matters: The Social Construction of Whiteness. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1993.

Frye Jacobson, Matthew. Roots Too: White Ethnic Revival in Post-Civil Rights America. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2008.

* —. Whiteness of a Different Color: European Immigrants and the Alchemy of Race. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999.

Guglielmo, Jennifer, and Salvatore Salerno, eds. Are Italians White? How Race Is Made in America. New York: Routledge, 2003.

Guglielmo, Thomas. White on Arrival: Italians, Race, Color, and Power in Chicago, 1890-1945. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Gust, Onni. Unhomely Empire: Whiteness and Belonging, c.1760-1830. Bloomsbury, 2020.

Hardy, Travis. The White Men’s Countries: Racial Identity in the United States-Australian Relationship, 1933-1953. New York: Peter Lang, 2020.

Hartigan, John, Jr. Racial Situations: Class Predicaments of Whiteness in Detroit. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999.

Heneghan, Bridget T. Whitewashing America: Material Culture and Race in the Antebellum Imagination. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2003.

Hopkinson, Izabela. Off Whiteness: Place, Blood, and Tradition in Post-Reconstruction Southern Literature. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2020.

Horne, Gerald. The White Pacific: U.S. Imperialism and Black Slavery in the South Seas after the Civil War. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 2007.

Horsman, Reginald. Race and Manifest Destiny: The Origins of American Racial Anglo-Saxonism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981.

Hughes, David McDermott. Whiteness in Zimbabwe: Race, Landscape, and the Problem of Belonging. Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.

Ignatiev, Noel. How the Irish Became White. New York: Routledge, 2008.

Jackson, Erika K. Scandinavians in Chicago: The Origins of White Privilege in Modern America. Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2019.

Jennings, La Vinia Delois, ed. At Home and Abroad: Historicizing Twentieth-Century Whiteness in Literature and Performance. Knoxville: University of Tennessee, 2009. 

Katznelson, Ira. When Affirmative Action Was White: An Untold History of Racial Inequality in Twentieth-Century America. New York: W.W. Norton, 2005.

* Kendi, Ibram X. Stamped from the Beginning: The Definitive History of Racist Ideas in America. New York: Bold Type Books, 2017.

Kruse, Kevin M. White Flight: Atlanta and the Making of Modern Conservatism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2007.

Lewis, George. Massive Resistance: The White Response to the Civil Rights Movement. London: Bloomsbury, 2006.

Loftsdóttir, Kristin and Lars Jensen. Whiteness and Postcolonialism in the Nordic Region: Exceptionalism, Migrant Others and National Identities. 2012. New York: Routledge, 2016.

Loveman, Mara. National Colors: Racial Classification And The State In Latin America. Oxford University Press, 2014.

Lui, Meizhu, Bárbara Robles, Betsy Leondar-Wright, Rose Brewer, and Rebecca Adamson. The Color of Wealth: The Story Behind the U.S. Racial Wealth Divide. New York: The New Press, 2006.

Manne, Robert. Whitewash: On Keith Windschuttle’s Fabrication of Aboriginal History. Melbourne: Black Inc., 2004.

* Morrison, Toni. “Making America White Again.” The New Yorker, November 21, 2016.

Oliver, Melvin L. and THomas M. Shapiro. Black Wealth/White Wealth: A New Perspective on Racial Inequality. New York: Routledge, 1995.

Onsman, Andrys. How Tasmanian Aboriginals Have Been Portrayed by White Australians: A History of Racial and Cultural Delegitimization and the Case of Truganini’s Necklace. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 2020.

Painter, Nell Irvin. The History of White People. New York: W. W. Norton, 2011.

Picca, Leslie Houts, and Joe R. Feagin. Two-Faced Racism: White in the Backstage and Frontstage. New York: Routledge, 2007.

Ravenscroft, Alison. The Postcolonial Eye: White Australian Desire and the Visual Field of Race. New York: Routledge, 2012.

Razack, Sherene. Dark Threats and White Knights: The Somalia Affair, Peacekeeping, and the New Imperialism. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2004.

Roberts, Dorothy. Fatal Invention: How Science, Politics, and Big Business Re-Create Race in the Twenty-First Century. New York: The New Press, 2012.

* Roediger, David R. How Race Survived US History: From Settlement and Slavery to the Obama Phenomenon. New York: Verso, 2010.

* —. The Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of Working Class America. 2nd ed. New York: Verso, 2007.

—. Working Toward Whiteness: How America’s Immigrants Became White. The Strange Journey from Ellis Island to the Suburbs. New York: Basic Books, 2005.

* —, ed. Black on White: Black Writers on What It Means to Be White. New York: Schocken, 1998.

Row, Jesse. White Flights: Race, Fiction, and the American Imagination. Minneapolis, MN: Graywolf Press, 2019.

Sakai, J. Settlers: The Mythology of the White Proletariat from Mayflower to Modern. 1983. 4th ed. Montreal: Kersplebedeb, 2014.

Salter, Colin. Whiteness and Social Change: Remnants Colonialisms and White Civility in Australia and Canada. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2013.

Shaw, Wendy S. Cities of Whiteness. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2007.

Singh, Nikhil Pal. “The Whiteness of Police.” American Quarterly, vol. 66, no. 4, 2014, 1091-1099.

Sokol, Jason. There Goes My Everything: White Southerners in the Age of Civil Rights, 1945-1975. New York: Vintage, 2007.

Suzuki, Yuka. The Nature of Whiteness: Race, Animals, and Nation in Zimbabwe. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2017.

Tehranian, John. Whitewashed: America’s Invisible Middle Eastern Minority. New York: New York University Press, 2008.

Terkel, Studs. Race: How Blacks and Whites Think and Feel about the American Obsession. 1992. New York: The New Press, 2012.

Vellon, Peter. A Great Conspiracy against Our Race: Italian Immigrant Newspapers and the Construction of Whiteness in the Early 20th Century. New York: New York University Press, 2014.

Vogel, Todd. Rewriting White: Race, Class, and Cultural Capital in Nineteenth-Century America. Rutgers University Press, 2004.

Wald, Gayle. Crossing the Line: Racial Passing in Twentieth-Century U.S. Literature and Culture. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2000.

Ward, Deborah E. The White Welfare State: The Racialization of U.S. Welfare Policy. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2005.

Watts, Trent A. One Homogeneous People: Narratives of White Southern Identity, 1890-1920. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2010.

Wekker, Gloria. White Innocence: Paradoxes of Colonialism and Race. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2016.

Wells, Jeremy. Romances of the White Man’s Burden: Race, Empire, and the Plantation in American Literature, 1880-1936. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press, 2011.

Yancy, George, Black Bodies, White Gazes: The Continuing Significance of Race in America. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2017.

Zavaglia, Liliana. White Apology and Apologia: Australian Novels of Reconciliation. Cambria Press, 2016.

Theories of Whiteness

Ahmed, Sara. “A Phenomenology of Whiteness.” Feminist Theory, vol. 8, no. 2, 2007, 149-168.

Carter, J. Kameron. Race: A Theological Account. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Dabashi, Hamid. Brown Skin, White Masks. Pluto Press, 2007.

* Delgado, Richard, and Jean Stefancic, eds. Critical Whiteness Studies: Looking behind the Mirror. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1997.

Driscoll, Mark. The Whites Are Enemies of Heaven: Climate Caucasianism and Asian Ecological Protection. Durham: Duke University Press, 2020.

* Dyer, Richard. White: Essay on Race and Culture. New York: Routledge, 1997.

Fanon, Frantz. Black Skin, White Masks. 1952. New York: Grove Press, 2008.

Feagin, Joe R. The White Racial Frame: Centuries of Racial Framing and Counter-Framing. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge, 2013.

Garner, Steve. A Moral Economy of Whiteness: Four Frames of Racializing Discourse. New York: Routledge, 2019.

Hartigan, John, Jr. Odd Tribes: Toward a Cultural Analysis of White People. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2005.

* Hill, Jane H. The Everyday Language of White Racism. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2008.

* Hill, Mike, ed. Whiteness: A Critical Reader. New York: New York University Press, 1997.

* Ignatiev, Noel, and John Garvey, eds. Race Traitor. Routledge, 1996.

* Jardina, Ashley. White Identity Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019.

Kanjere, Anastasia. “Whiteness and the Myth of Innocence: Tracing a Textual Engagement.” Doctoral diss., La Trobe University, 2019.

Katz, Yarden. Artificial Whiteness: Politics and Ideology in Artificial Intelligence. New York: Columbia University Press, 2020.

Kindinger, Evangelia and Mark Schmitt, eds. The Intersections of Whiteness. New York: Routledge, 2019.

* Liebert, Rachel Jane. Psycurity: Colonialism, Paranoia, and the War on Imagination. New York: Routledge, 2018.

Leonardo, Zeus. Race, Whiteness, and Education. New York: Routledge, 2009.

* Leroux, Darryl. Distorted Descent: White Claims to Indigenous Identity. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press, 2019.

Leverenz, David. Honor Bound: Race and Shame in America. Rutgers University Press, 2012.

* Lipsitz, George. The Possessive Investment in Whiteness: How White People Profit from Identity Politics. Revised and expanded edition. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 2006.

Lopez, Alfred J. Postcolonial Whiteness: A Critical Reader on Race and Empire. Albany, NY: SUNY, 2005.

* López, Ian Haney. White by Law: The Legal Construction of Race. Revised and updated edition. New York: New York University Press, 2006.

Marston, Kendra. Postfeminist Whiteness: Problematising Melancholic Burden in Contemporary Hollywood. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2020.

Martinot, Steve. The Machinery of Whiteness: Studies in the Structure of Racialization. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 2010.

Matias, Cheryl E. Feeling White: Whiteness, Emotionality, and Education. Rotterdam: Sense, 2016.

Middleton, Stephen, David R. Roediger, and Donald M. Shaffer, eds. The Construction of Whiteness: An Interdisciplinary Analysis of Race Formation and the Meaning of White Identity. Jackson: University of Mississippi Press, 2018.

* Mills, Charles W. The Racial Contract. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1999.

—, ed. From Class to Race: Essays in White Marxism and Black Radicalism. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003.

* Moreton-Robinson, Aileen. The White Possessive: Property, Power, and Indigenous Sovereignty. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2015.

—, ed. Whitening Race: Essays in Social and Cultural Criticism. Aboriginal Studies Press, 2004.

* Morrison, Toni. Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992.

* Omi, Michael, and Howard Winant. Racial Formation in the United States. 3rd ed. New York: Routledge, 2014.

Ramirez, Mark D., and David A.M. Peterson. Ignored Racism: White Animus toward Latinos. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020.

Rondilla, Joanne L., Rudy P. Guevarra Jr., and Paul Spickard, eds. Red and Yellow, Black and Brown: Decentering Whiteness in Mixed Race Studies. Rutgers University Press, 2017.

Seshadri-Crooks, Kalpana. Desiring Whiteness: A Lacanian Analysis of Race. New York: Routledge, 2000.

Skidmore, Thomas E. Black into White: Race and Nationality in Brazilian Thought. Oxford University Press, 1974. Republished: Duke University Press, 1993.

* Smith, Lillian. Killers of the Dream. 1949. New York: W.W. Norton, 1994.

* Stovall, Tyler. White Freedom: The Racial History of an Idea. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2021.

Watson, Veronica T. The Souls of White Folk: African American Writers Theorize Whiteness. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2013.

Whiteman, Medina Tenour. The Invisible Muslim: Journeys Through Whiteness and Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2020.

* Yancy, George. Look, a White! Philosophical Essays on Whiteness. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 2012.

—, ed. Christology and Whiteness. New York: Routledge, 2012.

—, ed. What White Looks Like: African-American Philosophers on the Whiteness Question. New York: Routledge, 2004.

Zuberi, Tukufu, and Eduardo Bonilla-Silva, eds. White Logic, White Methods: Racism and Methodology. Rowman & Littlefield, 2008.

Fuck White Supremacy

Anderson, Carol. White Rage: The Unspoken Truth of Our Racial Divide. Bloomsbury, 2017.

Belew, Kathleen. Bring the War Home: The White Power Movement and Paramilitary America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2018.

Craven, Alice Mikal. Visible and Invisible Whiteness: American White Supremacy through the Cinematic Lens. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2018.

Daniels, Jessie. Cyber Racism: White Supremacy Online and the New Attack on Civil Rights. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2009.

—. White Lies: Race, Class, Gender, and Sexuality in White Supremacist Discourse. New York: Routledge, 1997.

Domby, Adam H. The False Cause: Fraud, Fabrication, and White Supremacy in Confederate Memory. Charlottesville, University of Virginia Press, 2020.

Dyck, Kirsten. Reichsrock: The International Web of White-Power and Neo-Nazi Hate Music. Rutgers University Press, 2016.

Forbes, Robert, and Eddie Stampton. The White Nationalist Skinhead Movement: UK & USA, 1979-1993. Port Townsend, WA: Feral House, 2015.

Foster, Travis M. Genre and White Supremacy in the Postemancipation United States. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019.

Fredrickson, George M. The Black Image in the White Mind: The Debate on Afro-American Character and Destiny, 1817-1914, New York: Harper, 1971.

—. White Supremacy: A Comparative Study in American and South African History. New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981.

Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. Stony the Road: Reconstruction, White Supremacy, and Jim Crow. New York: Penguin Press, 2019.

Geary, Daniel, Camilla Schofield, and Jennifer Sutton, eds. Global White Nationalism: From Apartheid to Trump. Manchester University Press, 2020.

Hage, Ghassan. White Nation: Fantasies of White Supremacy in a Multicultural Society. New York: Routledge, 2000.

Horne, Gerald. The Apocalypse of Settler-Colonialism: The Roots of Slavery, White Supremacy, and Capitalism in 17th Century North Americna and The Caribbean. New York: Monthly Review Press, 2018.

—. Race War! White Supremacy and the Japanese Attack on the British Empire. New York: New York University Press, 2005.

—. White Supremacy Confronted: U.S. Imperialism and Anti-Communism vs. the Liberation of South Africa from Rhodes to Mandela. New York: International Publishers, 2019.

Jackson, Lauren Michele. White Negro: When Cornrows Were in Vogue… and Other Thoughts on Cultural Appropriation. New York: Beacon Press, 2019.

Kelly, Casey Ryan. Apocalypse Man: The Death Drive and the Rhetoric of White Masculine Victimhood. Columbus: The Ohio State University Press, 2020.

Kühl, Stefan. The Nazi Connection: Eugenics, American Racism, and German National Socialism. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Layne, Priscilla Dionne. White Rebels in Black: German Appropriation of Black Popular Culture. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2018.

MacCann, Donnarae. White Supremacy in Children’s Literature. New York: Routledge, 2000.

Picciolini, Christian. White American Youth: My Descent into America’s Most Violent Hate Movement—and How I Got out. Hachette Books, 2017.

Razack, Sherene. Looking White People in the Eye: Gender, Race, and Culture in Courtrooms and Classrooms. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998.

Rodríguez, Dylan. Suspended Apocalypse: White Supremacy, Genocide, and the Filipino Condition. University of Minnesota Press, 2009.

Saini, Angela. Superior: The Return of Race Science. Beacon Press, 2019.

Stern, Alexandra Minna. Proud Boys and the White Ethnostate: How the Alt-Right Is Warping the American Imagination. Beacon Press, 2019.

Stokes, Mason. The Color of Sex: Whiteness, Heterosexuality, and the Fictions of White Supremacy. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2001.

Tenold, Vegas. Everything You Love Will Burn: Inside the Rebirth of white Nationalism in America. Bold Type Books, 2018.

Wellman, T. David. Portraits of White Racism. 1977. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Whitman, James Q. Hitler’s American Model: The United States and the Making of Nazi Race Law. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2017.

Zeskind, Leonard. Blood and Politics: The History of the White Nationalist Movement from the Margins to the Mainstream. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2009.

White Class, White Trash

Clair, Matthew. Privilege and Punishment: How Race and Class Matter in Criminal Court. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2020.

Gest, Justin. The New Minority: White Working Class Politics in an Age of Immigration and Inequality. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016.

—. The White Working Class. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018.

Harkins, Anthony. Hillbilly: A Cultural History of an American Icon. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Harkins, Anthony, and Meredith McCarroll, eds. Appalachian Reckoning: A Region Responds to Hillbilly Elegy. Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University Press, 2019.

Herzberg, David. White Market Drugs: Big Pharma and the Hidden History of Addition in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2020.

Isenberg, Nancy. White Trash: The 400-Year Untold History of Class in America. New York: Penguin Books, 2016.

Kerl, Eric. White Bred: Hillbillies, White Trash, and Rednecks against White Supremacy. Chicago: Haymarket Books, 2019.

McCarroll, Meredith. Unwhite: Appalachia, Race, and Film. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2018.

Metzl, Jonathan M. Dying of Whiteness: How the Politics of Racial Resentment Is Killing America’s Heartland. Basic Books, 2019.

Soto-Crespo, Ramon E. The White Trash Menace and Hemispheric Fiction. Columbus: The Ohio State University Press, 2020.

Wray, Matt. Not Quite White: White Trash and the Boundaries of Whiteness. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2006.

—. White Trash: Race and Class in America. New York: Routledge, 1996.

Praying while White

Emerson, Michael O., and Christian Smith. Divided by Faith: Evangelical Religion and the Problem of Race in America. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Finley, Stephen C., Biko Mandela Gray, and Lori Latrice Martin, eds. The Religion of White Rage: Religious Fervor, White Workers and the Myth of Black Racial Progress. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2020.

Irons, Charles F. The Origins of Proslavery Christianity: White and Black Evangelicals in Antebellum Virginia. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2008.

Joshi, Khyati Y. White Christian Privilege: The Illusion of Religious Equality in America. New York: New York University Press, 2020.

Lucia, Amanda J. White Utopias: The Religious Exoticism of Transformational Festivals. University of California Press, 2020.

Mueller, Max Perry. Race and the Making of the Mormon People. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2017.

Mulder, Mark T. Shades of White Flight: Evangelical Congregations and Urban Departure. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2015.

Reeve, W. Paul. Religion of a Different Color: Race and the Mormon Struggle for Whiteness. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017.

White Womanhood and Angry White Men

Apel, Dora. Imagery of Lynching: Black Men, White Women, and the Mob. Rutgers University Press, 2004.

Chesnutt, Charles. “What Is a White Man?The Independent, vol. 41, 30 May 1889, pp. 5-6.

DeLisle, Christine Taitano. Placental Politics: CHamoru Women, White Womanhood, and Indigeneity under U.S. Colonialism in Guam. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2019.

Jacobs, Margaret D. White Mother to a Dark Race: Settler Colonialism, Maternalism, and the Removal of Indigenous Children in the American West and Australia, 1880-1940. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2011.

Jones, Cecily. Engendering Whiteness: White Women and Colonialism in Barbados and North Carolina, 1627-1865. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2007.

* Jones-Rogers, Stephanie E. They Were Her Property: White Women as Slave Owners in the American South. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2019.

* Kasson, John F. Houdini, Tarzan, and the Perfect Man: The White Male Body and the Challenge of Modernity in America. New York: Hill and Wang, 2001.

Khanna, Nikki. Whiter: Asian American Women on Skin Color and Colorism. New York: New York University Press, 2020.

* Kimmel, Michael. Angry White Men: American Masculinity at the End of an Era. New York: Nation Books, 2013.

Marcus, Jane. Hearts of Darkness: White Women Write Race. Rutgers University Press, 2004.

* McRae, Elizabeth Gillespie. Mothers of Massive Resistance: White Women and the Politics of White Supremacy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018.

Moreton-Robinson, Aileen. Talkin’ Up to the White Woman: Indigenous Women and Feminism. University of Queensland Press, 2000.

Nelson, Dana D. National Manhood: Capitalist Citizenship and the Imagined Fraternity of White Men. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1998.

Nemoto, Kumiko. Racing Romance: Love, Power, and Desire among Asian American/White Couples. Rutgers University Press, 2009.

* Ware, Vron. Beyond the Pale: White Women, Racism, and History. New York: Verso, 2015.

Colorblindness, Post-Race Bullshit, and Whitelash

Abrajano, Marisa, and Zoltan L. Hajnal. White Backlash: Immigration, Race, and American Politics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2015.

* Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo. Racism without Racists: Color-Blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in America. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003.

Burke, Meghan. Colorblind Racism. Cambridge: Polity, 2018.

Cabrera, Nolan L. White Guys on Campus: Racism, White Immunity, and the Myth of “Post-Racial” Higher Education. Rutgers University Press, 2018.

Kaufman, Eric. Whiteshift: Populism, Immigration, and the Future of White Majorities. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2019.

Wise, Tim. Colorblind: The Rise of Post-Racial Politics and the Retreat from Racial Equality. San Francisco, CA: City Lights, 2010.

White Privilege

Collins, Christopher S., and Alexander Jun. White Out: Understanding White Privilege and Dominance in the Modern Age. Peter Lang, 2017.

Ferberg, Abby L. White Privilege: What Everyone Needs to Know. Oxford University Press, 2020.

Hagerman, Margaret A. White Kids: Growing up with Privilege in a Racially Divided America. New York: New York University Press, 2018.

Leonard, David J. Playing While White: Privilege and Power on and off the Field. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2017.

* Rothenberg, Paula S, ed. White Privilege: Essential Readings on the Other Side of Racism. 5th ed. New York: Worth Publishers, 2015.

Sullivan, Shannon. Revealing Whiteness: The Unconscious Habits of Racial Privilege. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2006.

—. White Privilege. Cambridge: Polity, 2019.

Wise, Tim. White Like Me: Reflections on Race from a Privileged Son. New York: Soft Skull Press, 2011.

Doing Anti-Racism, Abolishing Whiteness

Alcoff, Linda Martín. The Future of Whiteness. Cambridge: Polity, 2015.

Aptheker, Herbert. Anti-Racism in U.S. History: The First Two Hundred Years. New York: Praeger, 1993.

Borsheim-Black, Carlin, and Sofia Tatiana Sarigianides. Letting Go of Literary Whiteness: Antiracist Literature Instruction for White Students. Teachers College Press, 2019.

Casey, Zachary A., and Shannon K. McManimon. Building Pedagogues: White Practicing Teachers and the Struggle for Antiracist Work in Schools. SUNY Press, 2020.

Channing Brown, Austin. I’m Still Here: Black Dignity in a World Made for Whiteness. Convergent Books, 2018.

* DiAngelo, Robin. What Does It Mean to Be White? Developing White Racial Literacy. New York: Peter Lang, 2012.

—. White Fragility: Why It’s So Hard for White People to Talk about Racism. Boston: Beacon Press, 2018.

Dyson, Michael Eric. Tears We Cannot Stop: A Sermon to White America. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2017.

Frankenburg, Ruth. Displacing Whiteness: Essays in Social and Cultural Criticism. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997.

Harvey, Jennifer. Raising White Kids: Bringing Up Children in a Racially Unjust America. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 2018.

* Hill, Mike. After Whiteness: Unmaking an American Majority. New York: New York University Press, 2004.

Hughey, Matthew. White Bound: Nationalists, Antiracists, and the Shared Meanings of Race. Stanford University Press, 2012.

Jealous, Ann Todd, and Caroline T. Haskell, eds. Combined Destinies: Whites Sharing Grief about Racism. Dulles, VA: Potomac Books, 2013.

Jensen, Robert. The Heart of Whiteness: Confronting Race, Racism, and White Privilege. San Francisco, CA: City Lights, 2005.

* Katz, Judith H. White Awareness: Handbook for Anti-Racism Training. 1978. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2003.

* Kendi, Ibram X. How to Be an Antiracist. London: One World, 2019.

McGettigan, Timothy and Earl Smith. A Formula for Eradicating Racism: Debunking White Supremacy. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016.

Michael, Ali. Raising Race Questions: Whiteness and Inquiry in Education. New York: Teachers College Press, 2015.

Mills, Charles W. Black Rights/White Wrongs: The Critique of Racial Liberalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017.

Rasmussen, Birgit Brander, Eric Klinenberg, Irene J. Nexica, and Matt Wray, eds. The Making and Unmaking of Whiteness. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2001.

Roediger, David R. Towards the Abolition of Whiteness. Verso, 1994.

Snyder-Young, Dani. Privileged Spectatorship: Theatrical Interventions in White Supremacy. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 2020.

* Solomon, Akiba, and Kenrya Rankin. How We Fight White Supremacy: A Field Guide to Black Resistance. New York: Bold Type Books, 2019.

* Sullivan, Shannon. Good White People: The Problem with Middle-Class White Anti-Racism. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 2014.

Tanner, Samuel Jaye. Whiteness, Pedagogy, and Youth in America: Critical Whiteness Studies in the Classroom. New York: Routledge, 2018.

Thandeka. Learning to Be White: Money, Race, and God in America. New York: Continuum, 2000.

Thompson, Becky. Promise and a Way of Life: White Antiracist Activism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2001.

Tochluk, Shelly. Witnessing Whiteness: The Need to Talk about Race and How to Do It. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Education, 2010.

Trepagnier, Babara. Silent Racism: How Well-Meaning White People Perpetuate the Racial Divide. 2nd ed. New York: Paradigm, 2016.

Warren, Mark R. Fire in the Heart: How White Activists Embrace Racial Justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Watson, Veronica, Deirdre Howard-Wagner, and Lisa Spanierman. Unveiling Whiteness in the Twenty-First Century: Global Manifestations, Transdisciplinary Interventions. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2014.

Wise, Tim. Dear White America: Letter to a New Minority. San Francisco, CA: City Lights, 2012.

Yancy, George, ed. White Self-Criticality beyond Anti-Racism: How Does It Feel to Be a White Problem? Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2016.

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